精准的语言  让沟通更有效

                15618628760




论阿拉伯语翻译的市场前景和现状
作者:yinte           时间:2021-10-08 13:03:43

阿拉伯语主要分布在中东,西亚,北非等地区,所谓的阿拉伯半岛和阿拉伯世界。就那些 沙特,黎巴嫩,巴林,伊拉克,利比亚,埃及,巴里斯坦,阿联酋等还有十几个国家用阿拉伯语,很多人对阿拉伯语专业有误解,认为就业方向无外乎是可以进一些和阿拉伯语国家有往来的私企,或者在清真寺里教别人学习阿拉伯语,抑或在各种回族风情园当导游或者解说员,其实不然,阿拉伯语有重要的战略意义。

如果说古丝绸之路实现了政治通、经贸通和人文通,那么,"一带一路"意味着我国对外开放战略的升级转型.随着"一带一路"战略的开展,中国与阿拉伯国家及穆斯林地区之间交流合作的深化,阿拉伯语在中阿交流中显得尤为重要.文章通过分析阿拉伯语在中阿经贸及人文交流中的作用,进而探讨了阿拉伯语在中阿交流中的应用.

阿拉伯语翻译是所有语种里面最难之一,不仅因为词性语法的复杂性,还因为不同地区使用的阿拉比伯语是千差万别的。埃及的阿拉伯语很可能阿联酋的人很难看懂。


目前在中国专注阿拉伯语翻译你的公司非常少,主要集中在宁夏一带地域,阿拉伯语翻译中文是勉强过关的,但是反之几乎找不到好的翻译。论英语翻译阿拉伯语的翻译人才更是奇少,很多公司采取先把英文翻译成中文,再把中文翻译成阿拉伯语的方法,其实这是翻译的大忌,因为很可能已经不忠实于原文了。

外外互译一直是翻译界一大难题,比如德语翻译阿拉伯语日语翻译阿拉伯语西班牙语翻译阿拉伯语等。


下面是上海因特普林翻译公司的一段关于新闻类的英语翻译阿拉伯语的译文。懂阿拉伯语的同学可以认真甄别。

Source text - English
1. Press Concepts

Journalists, once a privileged group with prestige, often find themselves overlooked and underappreciated after the fall of an undemocratic system. This is perhaps clearest in the case of communism: “We are powerless,” a Belarusian editor complains. “Before, in the Soviet Union, institutions were obliged to react to a letter from a newspaper within ten days. Today? They don’t respond at all, whatever issue we address in the newspaper.”

What role should journalists expect to have in emerging democracies? There are many theories of the press, and it is useful to look at them in an attempt to answer this question.

Theories of the Press

Journalism in particular countries can play various societal roles, depending upon established media systems. These media systems are the result, in one definition, of “press laws, economic and political variables, cultural and social influences and such basic considerations as demographic distribution, literacy or personal income levels.”

The most distinguished press theories define role of media as follows:

1) The Soviet Communist Concept has it that the government not only controls but produces the news: “The final goal of releasing information in the press is connected with influencing people’s consciousness and deeds.”

2) The Authoritarian Concept means that a powerful government controls the press either through censorship or punishment after publication.

3) The Libertarian Concept holds that an educated public will choose wisely on its own among the various kinds of information in a free marketplace, and should be allowed that privilege.

4) The Social Responsibility Concept contends that the press owes a duty to the public and must be held accountable in some way if it becomes derelict in that duty.

5) The Revolutionary Concept includes such examples as the Soviet newspaper Pravda, at its origin the typical revolutionary newspaper, or underground and samizdat publications in totalitarian regimes. These are (or were) political newspapers, with political agendas. Pravda was in fact owned by the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.

6) The Developmental Concept views the press as a tool for building national identity and economic development. The subordination of media to development goals often implies some form of subtle autocratic control by a central government.

7) The Democratic Socialist Concept recognizes the need of pluralism but also allows state intervention, if necessary, in the name of protecting the interests of the people. The concept is often applied in publicly owned broadcast media in many parts of the world.

The Soviet Communist, Authoritarian, Libertarian, and Social Responsibility theories were first defined by Frederick Siebert, Theodore Peterson and Wilbur Schramm in 1956. Revolutionary and Development models were added by William Hachten in 1981. Hachten also combined Libertarian and Social Responsibility concepts under a Western model. Democratic Socialist theory was added by Robert Picard in mid-1980s. Picard reasons that Hachten’s Western model, which includes the Libertarian and Social Responsibility concepts, should also include a Democratic Socialist concept.

Asked which press concept they preferred, a representative group of Belarusian undergraduates and young reporters rejected absolutely both Soviet Communist and Authoritarian models. Nearly every respondent needed up to three concepts to adequately describe his preferences. In fact, as practiced in the real world, there are mixtures of these theories.

Translation - Arabic
مفاهيم الصحافة

بعد سقوط نظام غير ديمقراطي، غالباً ما يجد بعض الصحافيين أنفسهم مهملين وغير مقدرين تقديراً وافياً بعد زمن من التمتع بالاعتباريظهر هذا جلياً في النظام الشيوعي وفق ما صرّح به محرّر بيلاروسي متذمراً: " إننا اليوم في وضع العاجز، فقد كانت المؤسسات في الاتحاد السوفياتي السابق مرغمة على التجاوب مع مقال في صحيفة خلال عشرة أيامأما اليوم، فإنها لا تستجيب قط مهما يكن الموضوع الذي نعالجه في الصحيفة".

ما الدور الذي يجدر بالصحافيين توقـّعه في ظل الأنظمة الديمقراطية الناشئة؟ للصحافة عدّة نظريات ومفيد ان نلقي نظرة عليها في محاولة للاجابة عن هذا السؤال.

نظريات الصحافة
تستطيع الصحافة ان تلعب أدواراً اجتماعية مختلفة في دول معيّنة، استناداً الى أنظمتها الاعلامية الثابتةفهذه الأنظمة الاعلامية وبتعريف واحد، هي نتيجة " قانون المطبوعات والمتغيرات الاقتصادية والسياسية والتأثيرات الحضارية والاجتماعية واعتبارات أساسية كالتوزيع الديمغرافي ومستويات الثقافة او الدخل الشخصي1".

تحدد نظرياتالصحافة الأكثر بروزاً دور الاعلام كالآتي:

1) يعتبر المفهوم الشيوعي السوفياتي أن السلطة لا تتحكم بالأنباء فحسب بل تنتجها ايضاً: " يرتبط الهدف النهائي لنشر أخبار في الصحف بالتأثير على إدراك وأعمال الأفراد3".
2) يعتبر المفهوم الفاشستي ان السلطة النافذة تتحكم بالصحافة، إما من خلال الرقابة او بالمعاقبة بُعَيد النشر.
3) يعتبر المفهوم الليبرالي ان الشعب المثقف يختار بوعي وحرية أنواع الأخبار المختلفة في سوق حرّة، ويجب ان يتمتع بهذا الامتياز.
4) يؤكد مفهوم المسؤولية الاجتماعية ان الصحافة تدين بواجب حيال الشعب، ويجب ان تكون مسؤولة بطريقة ما اذا أهملت هذا الواجب.
5) يتضمن المفهوم الثوري أمثلة، كالصحيفة السوفياتية "البرافدا" (Pravda)، التي تشكل الصحيفة الثورية النموذجية منذ تأسيسها، او كالمنشورات والمطبوعات السرية في الأنظمة الديكتاتوريةفتلك صحف سياسية (او كانت كذلكمرتبطة بأجندا سياسيةكانت صحيفة "البرافدافي الواقع، ملكاً للجنة المركزية للحزب الشيوعي